͹ͺ
мվҤѹط
                      ͧ
  Թ»Ԯ  صѹԮ  ԸԮ  鹾ûԮ  Ҵ  ˹ѧ͸ 
ûԮ Թ»Ԯ [ѺҨ] ѧ Ҥ
͹һѵ
ԡص仹ͧҺѵ [] . ԡؼӤѭ . ԡؼդʧСǴ . ԡԡŨԵ . ԡؼըԵ駫ҹ . ԡءѺǷ . ԡؼ繵鹺ѭѵ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ ҶԹյѵ

ҶԹյѵ
ͧçԹԨ
ͧԡӤѭ ͧ ͧ ͧ ͧǺԳҵ ͧ ͧػѪ ͧ ͧҺ ͧ ͧѧª ͧ ͧ㹷Ѻ ͧ ͧԡؼ ͧ ͧԡؼѺúا ͧ ͧҡ ͧ ͧ ͧ ͧǤ ͧ ͧ͹ ͧ ͧСͺ١ͧ ͧ ͧ ͧ ͧСͺ ͧ ͧʹǷ ͧ ͧ ͧ ͧҡóä ͧ ͧͧ͹ ͧ ͧ ͧ ͧԹ ͧ ͧա ͧ ͧѯԡѧԡõ ͧ ͧѧõ ͧ ͧѧʻԳõ ͧ ͧԨõȪ ͧ ͧõȪ ͧ ͧѵõȪ ͧ ͧõȪ ͧ ͧ٨õȪ ͧ ͧѳõ ͧ ͧ٨õȪ ͧ ͧõٶȪ ͧ ͧõԹٶȪ ͧ ͧԨõ˭ԧ ͧ ͧѧõ˭ԧ ͧ ͧ͡Թõ˭ԧ ͧ ͧѹõ ͧ ͧѡǪӡʹҢͧоطҡʻ ͧ ͧõٻԡ ͧ ͧõٻԡس ͧ ͧõٻԡҹ ͧ ͧõٻ ͧ ͧõٻ ͧ ͧӵ⻷ ͧ ͧú㹡اҪ ͧ ͧԹ§ҧŧ ͧ ͧѹԵ֡ҵ ѻ ͧ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

Թյѵ
ͧԡӤѭ ͧ
[] ¹ ԡٻ˹觻СѵӤѭ ҹԴѧ мվҤçѭѵԡҺ ҵͧҺѵ Ҫԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵ Ӥѭؔ (ͧ )
ͧ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觻ö ЪҪѡ¡ͧҧ֧ ЪҪ¡ͧҹ ҹԴѧ мվҤçѭѵԡ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤ çҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͹ ԡط ԡ֧Ҵ»öҨѺ¡ͧ ԡҴ»ö ҧ ԡع鹵ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ )
ͧǺԳҵ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觻ö ЪҪѡ¡ͧҧ֧ Գҵ ЪҪ¡ͧҹ ҹԴѧ мվҤç ѭѵԡҺ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡Һž վҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͹ ԡط ԡ֧ǺԳҵ»öҨѺ¡ͧ ԡ ǺԳҵ»öҧ ԡع鹵ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ )
ͧػѪ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觺͡ԡաٻ˹ ǡԡѷԡͧ ػѪͧǡ ǹ繾ѹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

Ҫԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ʶ ԡ ͤԴҧÔ ҾоطդʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͧҺѵԶѨ” (ͧ ) ¹ ԡٻ˹觺͡ԡաٻ˹ ǡԡѹԡͧ ػѪͧǡǹķҹҾҡ ҹԴѧ ҵͧ ҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴҧÔ ҾоطդʧС Ǵ оطҢҔ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͧҺѵԶѨ” (ͧ )
ͧҺ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觻ö ЪҪѡ¡ͧҧ֧Թ ЪҪ¡ͧҹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͹ ԡط ԡ֧Թ»öҧ ԡԹ»öҧ ԡع鹵ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ ) ¹ ԡٻ˹觻ö ЪҪѡ¡ͧҧ֧׹ ЪҪ¡ͧҹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͹ ԡط ԡ֧׹»öҧ ԡ ׹»öҧ ԡع鹵ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ ) ¹ ԡٻ˹觻ö ЪҪѡ¡ͧҧ֧ ЪҪ¡ͧҹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͹ ԡط ԡ֧觴»öҧ ԡ 觴»öҧ ԡع鹵ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

¹ ԡٻ˹觻ö ЪҪѡ¡ͧҧ ֧͹ ЪҪ¡ͧҹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͹ ԡط ԡ֧͹»öҧ ԡ㴹͹»öҧ ԡع鹵ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ )
ͧѧª ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觡Ǵصʸԡաٻ˹ ԡٻ鹡Ǵ мѧª- ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͵ͧҺѵԻҪԡ (ͧ )
ͧ㹷Ѻ ͧ
[] ¹ ԡٻ˹㹷ʧѴ Ǵصʸ ԡؼԴͧٻ˹觵ѡ͹ҹ ҹҡҧ ҹո蹹鹔 ԡٻԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ ) ¹ ԡաٻ˹㹷ʧѴ Ǵصʸ ෾ҵѡ ͹ҹ Фس Фسҡҧ оФس ҧ鹔 ԡٻԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͧҺѵԷء (ͧ ) @ԧö : @ ѧª ʷ١ѴѵѺء ҧ () ѡ·ԯ 繵Ǣͧ @() ԨԡԨ ѧʧ () Ѿ žõ () Ҥ Դ㹡س @() Ԧ зз () ٻҤ Դٻ () ٻҤ Դٻ @() ҹ ҵ繹繹 () طѨ 駫ҹ () Ԫ ԧ @( .. /-/-, ͧ.ʡ. //, .. //) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧԡؼ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觺͡غʡ˹ غʡ ԡٻ ͧҹ繾ѹ еǷҹâͧغʡ ҹԴ ѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤ çҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴҧÔ Ҿоطդ ʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͧ ҺѵԶѨ” (ͧ )
ͧԡؼѺúا ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觺͡غʡ˹ غʡ ԡٻҹا ¨ Գҵ ʹʹФҹѨѪԢù 繾ѹ غʡ اԡع¨ Գҵ ʹʹФҹѨѪ Ԣ ԡعԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴҧÔ ҾоطդʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ ͧ ҺѵԻҪԡ ͧҺѵԶѨ” (ͧ )
ͧҡ ͧ
[] ¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¶ҹ ҹ صʸ͔ ҹͺ úѵŷҡ ҹ Դѧ ੾оǡͧмվҤҹ鹷áҧ ǡͧмվҤ- ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴ ҧÔ Ҿоط դʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ դʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ ) @ԧö : @ ҹդ ºؤҹ鹨֧Ъǡͧط @(.. //) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¶ҹ ҹص- ʸ͔ ҹͺ ҹ ҹö ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ դ ʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧǤ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¡ǡѺҹ ҹҡ ” ҹͺ ҹ мǵ” ҹԴѧ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ դʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧ͹ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¡ǡѺҹ ҹҡ ” ҹͺ ҹ դ͹㨨еͧ ҹԴ ѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤ çҺ ͧ ԡ դʧСǴ ͧ ҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧСͺ١ͧ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¶ҹ ҹص ͔ ҹͺ ҹ Сͺ١ͧ öո ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡Һ мվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ դʧС Ǵ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¶ҹ ҹص ʸ͔ ҹͺ ҹ ö ո ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ 仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ դ ʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧСͺ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¶ҹ ҹص ʸ͔ ҹͺ ҹ Сͺ ö ո ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ 仡ҺžмվҤçҺͧ ԡ դ ʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧʹǷ ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¶ҹ ҹѧʺ´ ѧ͔ ҹͺ öʹ ҹԴ ѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡Һžм ҤçҺ ͧ ԡ դʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ ) ¹ ԡٻ˹ҾҸ ԡط¶ҹ ҹѧʺ´ ѧ͔ ҹͺ ضتöʹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤ çҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴҧÔ Ҿоطդ ʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ ͧ ҺѵԶѨ” (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧ ͧ
[] ¹ 줹˹觹ԡطҡ ѹԴҢҔ ԡҹԴѧ ǡ ѹ ¡ǡ ѹ ǡҾ֧Ժѵҧô ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡط ǡͧҺѵ ¡¤ʔ (ͧ ) ¹ 줹˹觹ԡطҡ ѹ¹ԴҢҔ ԡҹԴѧ ǡ ѹ ¡ǡҾѹ ǡҾ֧Ժѵҧô ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡط ǡͧҺѵ ¡¤ʔ (ͧ ) ¹ 줹˹觹ԡطҡ ѹ©ѹԴҢҔ ԡҹԴѧ ǡ ѹ¡ǡҾѹ ǡҾ֧Ժѵҧô ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡط ǡͧҺѵ ¡¤ʔ (ͧ ) ¹ 줹˹觹ԡطҡ ѹ©ѹ˹ԴҢҔ ԡҹԴѧ ǡѹ ¡ǡҾѹ ǡҾ֧Ժѵ ҧô ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡط ǡͧҺѵ ¡¤ʔ (ͧ ) ¹ 줹˹觹ԡطҡ ѹ¡ѺԴҢҔ ԡҹԴѧ ǡ ѹ ¡ǡҾѹ ǡҾ֧Ժѵҧô ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡط ǡͧҺѵ ¡¤ʔ (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧҡóä ͧ
¹ ԡٻ˹觡Ǵصʸԡաٻ˹ ԡٻ鹡Ǵ м ҹԴѧ ͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͵ͧҺѵԻҪԡ (ͧ ) ¹ ԡٻ˹觡Ǵصʸԡաٻ˹ ԡٻ鹡Ǵ ҹмՔ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͵ͧҺѵԻҪԡ (ͧ ) ¹ ԡٻ˹觡Ǵصʸԡաٻ˹ ԡٻ鹡Ǵ мҡ㹸ҹ鹔 ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤ çҺ ͧ ԡ ͵ͧҺѵԻҪԡ (ͧ )
ͧͧ͹ ͧ
¹ ǡҵԺ͡ԡٻ˹ ҹͧ͹Դ Ѻ ԡٻ鹵ͺ ҹ ҧҵèͧ͹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡Һ мվҤçҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴҧÔ ҾоطդʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ ʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧ ͧ
[] ¹ ǡҵԺ͡ԡٻ˹ ҹҺ Դ ԡع鹵ͺ ҹ һʸǔ ҹԴ ѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡ҺžмվҤ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

çҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴҧ Ҿоطդ ʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ դʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧԹ ͧ
¹ ǡҵԶԡٻ˹ ҹѧԹ͔ ԡع ͺ ҵѧԹ¤Թҧ觔- ҹԴѧ ੾оǡͧмվҤҹ鹷áҧ ǡͧмվҤ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡Һ žмվҤçҺ ͧʶ ԡ ͤԴҧ оطդʧСǴ оطҢҔ ԡ դ ʧСǴ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧա ͧ
¹ ԡبӹǹҡӾ˹ 駡ԡҡѹ ǡѹ ԡٻա仨ҡʹ͹ ԡٻ繾ѹ ԡٻ˹աҡʹ仡͹µͧҵ繾ѹ ҹԴѧ ҵͧҺѵԻҪԡ˹ ֧ͧ仡Һ мվҤçҺ ͧ ԡ ͵ͧҺѵԻҪԡ (ͧ )
ͧѯԡѧԡõ ͧ
(õҧд١)
[] ¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ ࢵاҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹҹоѡ @ԧö : @ ҹԹطлԻب (.. //) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡ ͺҵ ШҾѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡԴ ǡ 仺Գҵ㹡اҪ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ҵͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ѯѧԡõ ¢ҧҡ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ѡ ԡͷԴҧçкѴҨѹͧǭҧ դ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ 蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡѯѧԡõҡó- Сþҡó鹨 @ԧö : @ ҡó ¶֧ ԴҸó { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繤㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧѧõ ͧ
(õҧ)
[] ¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ ࢵاҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡ ҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШ ҾѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ Գҵ㹡اҪ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ѧõ ¢ҧҡ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ѡ ԡõкѴҨѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ »ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 ա ѵҾ蹹 { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡ ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ҡѧõҡó Сþҡó鹨 繻ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繤㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧѧʻԳõ ͧ
(õҧ͹)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵاҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡ Ԫٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШ ҾѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ Գҵ㹡اҪ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧ ҡѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧ ҡҤԪٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ѧʻԳõ ҡ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ѡԡ õкѴҨѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩ ԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡѧʻԳõҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繤ҹ㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧԨõȪ ͧ
(õҧռ˹ѧȪ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ԨõȪҡ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ѡԡ õкѴҨѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ 蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡ繹ԨõȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繤㹡اҪ мš ֧á» ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹ Ǩԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧõȪ ͧ
(õҧբ繴ҺȪ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ õȪ ҡ () Һҹ鹢ͧѹش¢ Ѻŧҧͧѹͧѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩ ԧ »ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡõȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繤㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧѵõȪ ͧ
(õҧբ͡Ȫ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ѵõȪҡ ()͡ҹ鹢ͧѹش¢ Ѻŧҧͧѹͧѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ 蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡѵõȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繾ҹ㹡اҪ мš ֧á» ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧõȪ ͧ
(õҧբ١Ȫ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ õȪ ҡ ()١ҹ鹢ͧѹش¢ Ѻŧҧͧѹͧѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩ ԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ҡõȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ ྪҵ㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧ٨õȪ ͧ
(õҧբȪ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ٨õȪ ҡ ()ҹ鹢ͧѹش¢ Ѻŧҧͧѹͧѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩ ԧ »ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡ٨õȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繹ö㹡اҪ мš ֧á» ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧ٨õȪ ͧ
(õҧ١شᷧȪ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ٨õȪ ҡ شҹᷧТͧѹ͡ ҧҡ ᷧ㹻ҡ͡ҧ͡ ᷧ͡͡ҧͧ ᷧ 㹷ͧ͡ҧ͹ ᷧ㹢͹͡ҧ駷 ᷧ 駷͡ҧҷ ѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ 蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡ٨õȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繤ٴ´㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧѳõ ͧ
(õѳ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ѳõȪ ҡ õԹ¡ѳҹ鹢鹾Ҵ 麹 ͹觡觷Ѻѳҹ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ ѡԡõкѴҨѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 ա ѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡ繡ѳõȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繼Ծҡ⡧Ǻҹ㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡ ѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧõٶȪ ͧ
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ õٶԴ Ȫ ҡ ٧ Ǿ ѹ⩺ѡԡõкѴҨѹͧǭҧ м ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡõٶȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 繻ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繪ѺҢͧ㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧõԹٶȪ ͧ
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ õٶ ѧͷ ͺٶԹȪ ҡ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ѡԡõкѴҨ ѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ 蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡõԹٶȪ¹ҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ 繾㹡اҪ ʹҾСʻط 鹹ԡʧѹ ѵ෤ٶŧҧ ͡ ͷҹԭ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

¨ѹйͧèҡ мš鹨֧ á» ¾ѹ ʹ ѺѵҾ蹹 ɡ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧԨõ˭ԧ ͧ
(õҧռ˹ѧ˭ԧ)
[] ¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ ࢵاҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡ ҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШ ҾѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ Գҵ㹡اҪ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹ ͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ Ԩõ˭ԧ ҡ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ѡ ԡõкѴҨѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ 蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡ繹Ԩõ˭ԧҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ˭ԧ »оĵԹ͡㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡ ѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧѧõ˭ԧ ͧ
(õٻҧ´˭ԧ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ѧõ ˭ԧ ҡ ٧ ҡѹ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

⩺ѡԡõкѴҨѹͧǭҧ м ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡѧõ˭ԧҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ˭ԧ 㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧ͡Թõ˭ԧ ͧ
(õҧ١ǡ˭ԧ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹ ͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ͡Թõ˭ԧ ١ҹԧͺǨء Ҵ´ŧ ҡ ѹͧǭҧ ٧ Ǿҡѹ⩺ѡԡ õкѴҨѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 ա ѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡ͡Թõ˭ԧҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ˭ԧ 繾Ѥբͧҡԧ ҧ֧ҡзնҹ俤͡ ˭ԧ мš ֧á» ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧѹõ ͧ
(õТҴ)
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ѹõҡ лҡͧѹ͡ ٧ Ǿ ѹ⩺ѡԡõкѴҨѹͧǭҧ м ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡ繡ѹõҡó Сþҡó鹨繻ª ͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ ྪҵêͷԡ㹡اҪ мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡ ѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧѡǪӡʹҢͧоطҡʻ ͧ
ͧõٻԡ ͧ
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ԡõҡ ѧү ҵ Ф ҧ¢ͧѹ١俵Դء ⪹ѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡԡõҡó Сþҡó鹨繻ª { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õԡ ʹҾСʻط мš ֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧõٻԡس ͧ
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ԡسõҡ ѧү ҵ Ф ҧ¢ͧѹ١俵Դ ء⪹ ѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡԡسõҡó Сþҡó鹨繻ª ͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ ԡسժʹҾСʻط мš鹨֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѺѵҾ蹹ɡ ѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧõٻԡҹ ͧ
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ ԡҹõ ҡ ѧү ҵ Ф ҧ¢ͧѹ١ Դء⪹ ѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡԡҹõҡó Сþҡó鹨 ª͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ ԡҹҪʹҾСʻط мš鹨֧ á» ¾ѹ ʹѺѵҾ蹹 ɡѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧõٻ ͧ
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧ ҡѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧ ҡҤԪٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵繻Ѩҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ õ ҡ ѧү ҵ Ф ҧ¢ͧѹ١ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

Դء⪹ ѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡõҡó Сþҡó鹨繻ª ͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ êʹҾСʻط мš鹨֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѺѵҾ蹹ɡ ѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧõٻ ͧ
¹ мվҤзѺ ѹ ʶҹ͡ ࢵ اҪ 駹 ҹѡСѺҹоѡҤԪٯ ҹФͧѹʡͺҵШҾ ѡШ֧ ԭǹ ҹѡ Դ ǡҨ仺Գҵ㹡ا Ҫ¡ѹ ѡѺ зҹСѧŧҡҤԪٯ ֧ʶҹ˹ ʴҡ ѡж ҹҹ ˵繻Ѩ ҹʴҡ ҹеͺ ҹѡ ѧ֧ ͺѭҹ ҾмվҤ¶ѭҹԴ 鹷ҹ ǺԳҵ㹡اҪ ѺҡԳҵ ѧҡ ѹ ҾмվҤ֧зѺ ºѧǹŧ ǾѡǢ ҹҹ ͷҹŧҡ Ԫٯ 㹡اҪ ֧ʶҹ˹ʴҡ ˵ 繻Ѩҹʴҡ { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ҹеͺ ҹ ͡мŧҡҤԪٯ õ ҡ ѧү ҵ Ф ҧ¢ͧѹ١ Դء⪹ ѹͧǭҧ мդ֡ Ȩԧ»ҡ ѵ蹹 ѡ蹹 õ蹹 աѵҾ蹹 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ ҹ Ǵصʸ ӴѺ мվҤ¡ԡطѺ ԡط ǡ·ըѡحҳѧ ǡ繹繾ҹ ͡͹ ҡõҡó Сþҡó鹨繻ª ͡ūӨ繷ءǹҹ ԡط õ ժʹҾСʻط мš鹨֧á » ¾ѹ ʹѺѵҾ蹹ɡ ѧ ҹСǨԧ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧӵ⻷ ͧ
[] ¹ ҹ¡ԡطҺ͡ ҹ ӵ⻷ҹҨҡйӷ繨״ʹԷҴշº ս٧ҡ մ͡ǢҴǧͺҹ й ӵ⻷ҡѧ͹ʹҹ仔 ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ 䩹ҹ ٴҧ ҹǴصʸ ǹͧ仡Һžм ҤçҺ мվҤ ԡط ӵ⻷żҹҧ ҹá ѧ鹨֧ʹҹ ҹСǨԧ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ Թյѵ

ͧú㹡اҪ ͧ
¹ ҾèѾѰ ʧѺǡԨ ѧͷçд¡úª աͧСȪ 㹡ʧ ҪҷçоǡԨՔ ӴѺ鹾ҹ¡ԡطҺ͡ ҹ 蹴ԹçǡԨ ҵաͧСȪª㹡 ʧ ҪҷçоǡԨՔ ԡؾҡѹ˹ г ⾹ 䩹ҹС ҧ ҹǴصʸ ǹͧ仡Һžм ҤçҺ мվҤ ԡط á蹴Թç ǡԨ ѧͷçд¡úª ҹ Ǩԧ ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ͧԹ§ҧŧ ͧ
[] ¹ ҹ¡ԡطҺ͡ ҹ м๭ҸԷѻԹԡ㹵ӺŹ Թ§ŧ ҧŧǢ鹨ҡ§ѧ͹¹ ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ 䩹ҹ ҧ ҹǴصʸ ǹͧҺžм ҤçҺ мվҤ ԡط ҸԹԧ ѧط ҹСǨԧ ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

Թ»Ԯ ѧ [. Ҫԡѳ]

ҪԡԡҺ ػ

ͧѹԵ֡ҵ ѻ ͧ
駹 Եк͡¡ԡط м֡ҵ ѻ- ԡط¾ҡѹ˹ г ⾹ 䩹Ե ҧ ҹǴصʸ ǹͧ仡Һž վҤçҺ мվҤ ԡط ҵʹյͧԵԡع §ҵҹ ԵСǨԧ ֧ͧҺѵԔ (ͧ )
ҪԡԡҺ
ػ
[] ҹ - ͻҪԡ ԡҺҾ¡ʴ Т ԡصͧ Ѻԡط Ҫԡ ѧ ͹͹Ǫ ҾҢͶҹ㹸 Ҫԡ ԡҺ ҹºط͔ ҾҢͶ繤駷 ҹºط͔ ҾҢͶ繤駷 ҹºط͔ @ԧö : @ ѻ ǹҹҡ š¤˹繡ѻ˹ ҹ㨴ػ º͹ @ǹ ҧ ٧ ҹ ª ء ռӼ´ҧٺ˹ @ҹ鹨֡ ѻ˹ǹҹҹ @ 㹷¶֧Һѵ (Ҫԡҵ . ҵ һڵ @Ҫԡ ¶֧ҺѵԷժҧ ڢ.. ) { : ûԮ ѺҨŧóҪԷ : ˹ : }

ͤûԮѺҨ ˹ҷ -. http://www.84000.org/tipitaka/pitaka_item/m_line.php?B=1&A=5970 http://www.84000.org/tipitaka/pitaka_item/m_siri.php?B=1&siri=32 ҹºûԮѺѺǧ http://www.84000.org/tipitaka/pitaka_item/v.php?B=1&A=10838&Z=11364&pagebreak=0 ֡öҹ :- http://www.84000.org/tipitaka/attha/attha.php?b=1&i=281 úѭûԮ http://www.84000.org/tipitaka/read/?index_mcu1


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